etair adharmo vijnatah
sthanam dandasya yujyate
dandam arhanti karinah.
etaih = by all these (witnesses, beginning from the sun-god);
adharmah = deviation from the regulative principles;
vijnatah = is known;
sthanam = the proper place;
dandasya = of punishment;
yujyate = is accepted as;
sarve = all;
karma anurodhena = with consideration of the activities performed;
dandam = punishment;
arhanti = deserve;
karinah = the performers of sinful activities.
The candidates for punishment are those who are confirmed by these many witnesses to have deviated from their prescribed regulative duties. Everyone engaged in fruitive activities is suitable to be subjected to punishment according to his sinful acts.
sambhavanti hi bhadrani
dehavan na hy akarmakrt.
sambhavanti = there are;
hi = indeed;
bhadrai = auspicious, pious activities;
viparitani = just the opposite (inauspicious, sinful activities);
ca = also;
anaghah = O sinless inhabitants of Vaikuṇṭha;
karinam = of the fruitive workers;
guna-sangah = contamination of the three modes of nature;
asti = there is;
deha-van = anyone who has accepted this material body;
na = not;
hi = indeed;
akarma-krt = without performing action.
O inhabitants of Vaikuntam, you are sinless, but those within this material world are all karmīs, whether acting piously or impiously. Both kinds of action are possible for them because they are contaminated by the three modes of nature and must act accordingly. One who has accepted a material body cannot be inactive, and sinful action is inevitable for one acting under the modes of material nature. Therefore all the living entities within this material world are punishable.
The difference between human beings and nonhuman beings is that a human is supposed to act according to the direction of the Vedas. Unfortunately, men manufacture their own ways of acting, without reference to the Vedas. Therefore all of them commit sinful actions and are punishable.
yena yavan yathadharmo
dharmo veha samihitah
sa eva tat-phalam bhunkte
tatha tavad amutra vai.
yena = by which person;
yavan = to which extent;
yatha = in which manner;
adharmah = irreligious activities;
dharmah = religious activities;
va = or;
iha = in this life;
samihitah = performed;
sah = that person;
eva = indeed;
tat-phalam = the particular result of that;
bhunkte = enjoys or suffers;
tatha = in that way;
tavat = to that extent;
amutra = in the next life;
vai = indeed.
In proportion to the extent of one’s religious or irreligious actions in this life, one must enjoy or suffer the corresponding reactions of his karma in the next.
As stated in Bhagavad-Gita (14.18) :
Those who act in the mode of goodness are promoted to higher planetary systems to become demigods, those who act in an ordinary way and do not commit excessively sinful acts remain within this middle planetary system, and those who perform abominable sinful actions must go down to hellish life.
To be continued ...