(1) Maitreya said: 'The ultimate truth of what shows itself in the many as the indivisible, should always be seen as the atomic from which the oneness of men is misunderstood. (2) Surely is, of the truth of physical bodies [of atoms] that keep the same form till the end of time, that which emancipates to the Supreme ever composed into unlimited forms. (3) And thus, to the subtle as well as the gross forms, can time be measured, my best, by the motion of the combination of atoms of which the Supreme unmanifest Lord is the great force controlling all physical action. (4) That eternal time of the atoms is ascertained by means of the entire aggregate of the space taken by the atoms in their non-dual existence [their expansion], which is the supreme or great of [cosmic] time.
(5) Three times the double of two atoms becomes a hex atom of which one is reminded by what can be known to lighten up in the fluid of one's eye [as a dust-particle], seeing it go up when one looks in the sky. (6) The time formed by the combination of three hex atoms [in their expanding to the space they take] is called a truthi [calculated as 1/1687.5 of a second] of which one hundred are called a vedha; the three of them happen to be called but a lava. (7) The duration of three lava's is to be known as one nimesha [± 0.53 second] and the time of three of them is called a kshana [± 1.6 seconds], five of those should be known as a kâshthhâ [± 8 seconds] of which a laghu is the fifteen of them [± 2 minutes]. (8) The exact of fifteen of those laghus is called a nâdikâ [or danda, ± 30 minutes] and two of them make a muhurta [about an hour] while six to seven of them form one yâma [a quarter of a lightday or night] depending on human calculation [the season, the latitude]. (9) The measuring pot (water-clock) has the weight of six palas [14 ounces] and has a four mâsha[17 karats] golden probe four fingers long covering a hole through which it fills with water till next sunrise. (10) Four yâma's form the duration of both the day and the night of the human being and fifteen days [of eight yâma's each] make one pakshah [fortnight] which measured is known as being either black or white [depending on whether there is a full moon or new moon in it]. (11) The aggregate of such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional and solar] month with two of them forming a season of which there are six [resp. 'cold' or hentanta, 'dew' or shirshira, 'spring' or vasanta, 'warm' or grishma, 'rainy' or varsha and 'autumn' or sarad, counted from the 22 of dec.] according the movement of the sun going through the southern and the northern sky. (12) This movement of the sun is said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human being is estimated to be of a great many of those years [see also the 'full calendar of order'].
(13) The planets, the heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars all rotate along with the atoms in the universe completing their orbits as a conclusion of years in the Almighty [or cyclic] of the eternal of time. (14) The orbiting around the sun of the earth and of the other planets as well, the orbiting of our stars [in our galaxy around Sagittarius A in the sky] and also the orbiting moon is, o Vidura, thus spoken of as being of one [and the same cakra- or scheduled calendar-]year. (15) Unto the one [the sun] who in various ways gives life to the seeds of creation by His own energy and which, dissipating the darkness during the day, is moving distinct from all other material forms in the name of cyclic time - to which one's offers there is an increase of material outcome - one should by all means exercise respect once in a five years [like one does with leaping every four years].
(16) Vidura said: 'Given the traditional, divine and human of the final calculation in the measurement of the time periods of the lives of all the supreme living entities, what would be the calculation of the periods that take more than a millennium, o greatly learned one? (17) O mighty one of the Spirit, by dint of the eyes of your yogîc vision you are the one that in your self-realization does see of eternal time the movements of the Supreme Lord in the form of the entire universe.'
(18) Maitreya said: 'The four yugas [ages or millennia] called Satya, Tretâ, Dvâpara and Kali take together approximately 12000 years [or one mahâyuga] of the demigods [which are assigned360 vatsara's each]; . (19) The subsequent yugas starting with satya-yuga each are respectively four, three, two and one time 1200 demigod years long. (20) Experts say that the transitional periods at the beginning and end of each yuga cover several hundreds of demigod years and that they are the millennia [like the millennia we live in now] wherein all kinds of religious activities take place. (21) The complete sense of duty of mankind in its four principles of religion [of satya, dayâ, tapas, s'auca; truth, compassion, penance and cleanliness] was during Sathya-yuga properly maintained, but certainly in the other yugas the principles gradually declined one by one with irreligion proportionately being more and more admitted. (22) Apart from the one thousand [maha-]yugas for the three worlds [the heavenly, svarga; earthly, martya and lower, pâtâla ones] in the realm of the Absolute [Brahmaloka] that for sure make one day of Brâhma [of 4.32 billion years], o dear one, there is also a night just as long wherein the Creator of the universe goes asleep. (23) Following the end of the night with the beginning of another day of Lord Brahmâ the creation of the three worlds begins again in its totality covering the lives of fourteen Manus. (24) Each Manu enjoys a time of living of a little more than seventy-one [maha- that is a set of four] yugas.
(25) With the ending of each Manu, the next one follows along with the flourishing of his descendants, the seven sages, the god-conscious and the demigods with all of the following after them. (26) All these creations of the lower animals, the human beings, the ancestors and the demigods belonging to the one creation of a day of Brahmâ, are revolving through the three worlds appearing therein in the cycles of their own fruitive activities. (27) In the change of each Manu, the Supreme Lord manifests His goodness in His different incarnations as the Manu Himself that maintains this universe for the unfolding of the divine potencies. (28) Towards the darkness only the relatively small portion of physical interest facing the suspension of all manifestation merges by the eternal of time and of that do the innumerable living entities remain silent at the end of the day. (29) For sure after that are all the realities of the three worlds that entered into the night of Brahmâ, just as it is with an ordinary night, without the glare of the sun and the moon. (30) When the life-spheres of the three worlds are being set afire by the potency of the fire that emanates from the mouth of Lord Sankarshana [see 3-8:3], then the sage Bhrigu and others who are agitated by the heat move from the world of the saints [maharloka, the fourth world] to the world of men [janaloka, the next world]. (31) Immediately after the beginning of the devastation of the three worlds all the seas overflow with the agitation of violent winds and hurricanes that are blowing the waves. (32) In the water there is on the seat of Ananta the Lord in His mystic slumber with His eyes closed being glorified by the inhabitants of the worlds of men.
(33) Thus in the course of time there is decline through these days and nights of ending His [Brahmâ's] life just like it is with our lives, although it takes a hundred years [to him: two parârdha's or 2 times155.5 trillion years, see also 3-9:18] (34) The first half of the duration of His life called one parârdha has now passed and surely in this age we have begun with the second half. (35) In the beginning of the superior first half there was a millennium named the Brahmâ-kalpa in which the great was manifested whereupon Lord Brahmâ and the known sounds of the Veda appeared. (36) And thereafter at the end of the Brahmâ-millennium came into being what is called the Pâdma-kalpa in which from the Lord His navel the lotus of the universe sprouted. (37) This current millennium at the beginning of the second half is factually celebrated, o descendant of Bharata, as the one of Vârâha in which the Lord appeared in the form alike that of a hog [see also 1-3:7] (38) This eternal time of the two halves of Brahmâ's life is but a second compared to the unchanging, unlimited and surely beginningless Soul of the universe. (39) This eternal time beginning from the atom up to the final duration of two parârdha's, for sure is never the [real] controller; it is only capable to exercise control as Lord of the earth over those who are of body-consciousness. (40) Along with the transformation of the elements the henceforth united manifestations expanded outside covering with a universe of half a billion. (41) Enlarged up to ten times these units [or the secondary elements] that like atoms entered into it evidently came together and clustered with oneother into huge universes [or galaxies]. (42) That is said to be the infallible supreme cause of all causes, the supreme abode of the Maintainer and without doubt the original incarnation of the person of the Universal Mind [Mahâ-Vishnu].'